Unlike systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials, diagnostic studies and guidelines, the methodological research community has less agreement on which items to use for the quality appraisal of cohort studies, case-control studies and other types of observational evidence. The Dutch Cochrane Centre has a few checklists available (http://dcc.cochrane.org/beoordelingsformulieren-en-andere-downloads), but these are written in Dutch and were not formally validated. For the evaluation of prospective, non-randomized, controlled trials, the Cochrane Collaboration’s Risk of Bias Tool can be used. Other checklists can be found at: http://www.unisa.edu.au/Research/Sansom-Institute-for-Health-Research/Research-at-the-Sansom/Research-Concentrations/Allied-Health-Evidence/Resources/CAT/. GRADE also offers a number of criteria that can be used to judge the methodological quality of observational studies. These are further explained in the chapter on GRADE.
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